Permanent marker inks are used to draw on surfaces such as paper, plastic, metal, and other materials. These inks are usually made with volatile solvents and pigments. They can be toxic if inhaled or ingested. They should not come into contact with the skin or eyes because it can cause irritation or burns.
Permanent markers typically have a tip that is either felt-tipped or hard plastic, which contains the ink inside of it – this means they cannot be refilled once all of the ink has been used up (although some exceptions exist). The tips also need to be replaced because they will wear down over time due to abrasion from writing on surfaces like glass, metal, and vinyl records which contain abrasive particles or tiny grooves.
What are Permanent Marker Inks Made of?
Permanent marker inks are often made with volatile solvents and pigments. They may also add some color pigments to the solvent during the manufacturing process for more vivid colors. Permanent marker ink primarily comprises three elements: a colorant, a solvent, and a resin.
The colorant of marker ink is based on a pigment, chemically modified to be soluble in the solvent. Pigments are chosen for the specific characteristics that will allow them to produce the desired color when blended with other chemicals.
Additionally, the type of colorant used in marker ink is essential because if it does not dissolve completely in the solvent, it will cause the ink to clog and dry up. A thickened resin may be added to aid with this process. Difficulties may arise when a permanent marker ink needs to produce a non-standard color.
Most permanent marker inks are made with volatile solvents, such as xylene and toluene. These solvents allow the color pigments to dissolve into the ink more readily. However, because of their volatility, these solvents evaporate from the surface that is marked.
This is what leaves a permanent mark on the surface.
Solvent-based marker inks may also be supplemented with other solvents such as alcohol (ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, or methanol), ester, ketone, glycol ethers, and acetates. Some of these additives are added to make the ink more water-resistant and, therefore, more permanent.
The resin in marker ink is most commonly acrylic. Acrylic resins are generally water-based emulsion polymers that contain no solvents. Instead, they are polymerized (held together) by the use of heat and pressure. Because they have no solvent properties, acrylics are used to create thickened, slower drying inks.
Permanent marker ink is highly flammable and therefore should not be used near heat or fire. Solvents are highly toxic and should not be ingested or inhaled. Many solvent-based marker inks may also be flammable under the right conditions, such as on a dry surface at room temperature or higher.
How Their Ink Ingredients React to Water?
Permanent marker inks react very positively to water. Therefore, the resin and pigment have been formulated so that the two will break apart when contacted by a solvent such as water or oil, and the colorant portion of the ink will wash away.
How These Inks are Used?
The primary use of permanent marker inks is in writing on various surfaces. Special marker paper is available for artists who wish to create works of art using permanent marker inks. However, the most common use of these markers lies in labeling items or writing details onto packages and other surfaces that are intended to be reused.
Permanent marker ink is sometimes used as an artistic medium due to the vividness of the colors available.